Hypertension – Types, Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Hypertension or sometimes called the high blood pressure is nothing but a chronic medical condition in which the blood pressure in the arteries gets elevated. As a result heart has to work harder than before to pump the blood. While the normal blood pressure remains in the range of 100-140 mmHg at the top reading (systolic pressure) and 60-90 mmHg at the bottom reading (diastolic pressure) the high blood pressure reaches at or above 140/90 mmHg.

Causes of Hypertension :

Hypertension is of two types –

(1) the primary or essential hypertension and

(2) The secondary hypertension.

90-95 per cent of all the diagnosed hypertension cases are primary hypertension which are caused by no specific medical cause that doctors can identify whereas the 5- 10 per cent are secondary hypertension cases which are related to medical conditions that effects the arteries, heart, kidneys and also the endocrine systems. In fact, it is one of the most prevalent causes of various cardiovascular diseases. Hypertension is also related to increasing mortality chances.

However, the general factors that lead to primary hypertension are environmental as well as genetic factors. Genetic factors include :

  • Genes that control the hormones regulating the blood pressure, vessel contraction, water and sodium balance etc.
  • Genes that are related to developing abnormalities in the sympathetic nervous systems.

Symptoms of Hypertension :

Hypertension is hardly accompanied by any symptoms. But it has been seen that people with high blood pressure generally have the following problems –

  • Usual headache
  • Fatigue
  • Nausea
  • Loss of vision
  • Tinnitus etc.

Treatments of Hypertension :

The first recommendation for treating hypertension is an improved life style including having healthy diets with low sodium levels and high amount of fish, whole grains, nuts, fruits and vegetable etc, doing physical exercises, maintaining proper body-weight, staying away from stresses and tensions as much as possible, doing relaxation or meditation and also medication under experts opinion.